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Nouns Singular forms and plural forms with s
Common irregular plural forms
Possessive form ('s)
Transparent compounds
Gerunds for activities and pastimes


Simple present (also for future reference)
Present progressive with present and future meaning
Simple past of listed regular and irregular verbs
Irregular past forms: came/did/had/said/was/were/went
Past progressive
Present perfect simple
Present perfect progressive
Past perfect
Past perfect progressive
Future progressive
Future perfect

Passive forms: present and past forms of be + past participle

Simple passive verb forms (except modal perfects)
Present and past progressive passive verb forms

Parts of be, have, have got; There is/are/was/were
Positive imperative forms
Positive, negative and question forms
Short answers.
(except negative questions)
can for ability and permission; Let's...
Negative imperative forms
going to for prediction and intention
can for possibility
would like + noun phrase
-ing forms after like, stop
Infinitive forms after want, start
Negative questions
will for offers, requests, and with future meaning
could for past ability and possibility
have to for obligation
would like + infinitive
Common phrasal verbs with transparent meanings
-ing forms after go, verbs of (dis)like
Infinitive forms after want, start, like
is/was/has been able to
can't to deny possibility
could for requests and suggestions
must for obligation
shall for suggestions, plans, offers
need (to)/needn't for necessity
to + infinitive after what/where etc
Infinitives after permitted verbs and adjectives, with
too/enough/very, after indefinite pronouns/adverbs, infinitive of purpose
Question tags: positive tag following negative statement and vice versa
Common phrasal verbs with non-transparent meanings
have something done
make/let + infinitive
used to
was/were going to
had better for advice or desirability
may/might for possibility
must for deduced facts
should/ought to for advice, duty, desirability
Question tags: positive tag following positive statement
get something done
may for permission
would for willingness/refusal/habitual past actions
would for hypothetical situations,desires, preferences
Modal perfects
might for a suggested course of action
must have/can't have for assumptions
should (have) for expectation
will (have) for assumptions

Determiners Articles: a, an, the or zero + noun (phrase)
All cardinal and ordinal numbers
Quantifiers: some, any, a little, a lot (of) and with more
Distributives: every, all + noun,another, other, each, both, either, neither
Demonstrative: these, those (also pronouns)
Interrogative Which ? (also pronoun)
the + adjective
Predeterminers: all, such
Relative: whose
a meaning per

Pronouns Personal, subject and direct object
Demonstrative: this, that, these, those (also as determiners)
Interrogative: Who? What?
It (+ be) in impersonal expressions
As indirect objects
Interrogative: Which? (also determiner)
some-, no-, any-, every-(body/thing)
Indefinite: someone, anyone, everyone, no one
Interrogative: Whose? (also as determiner)
Reflexive for emphasis
Relative: who, which, that
Omission of relative
Relative: whose
Reciprocal: each other, one another
Pronoun + of, to, adjective, relative clause

Adjectives Simple adjectives (attributive and predicative)
Comparative: -er/more + adjective...than, as ... as, comparative with less
Superlative: the -est in/of, most + adjective, superlative with least
better, best, worse, worst, more, most
too + adjective
How + adjective
Intensifiers: much, a bit, a lot,nearly as, just as, not quite as
Adjective + to
Adjective + enough

Adverbs Some adverbs of frequency, place and time
Adjective +ly [see wordlist]
Interrogatives: Where? When? Why?; How (much/many)?
Intensifier: very
Additive: too
Adjective + (i)ly
Irregular adverbs of manner
Comparative:, -er/-est, more/most + adverb
Indefinite: somewhere, nowhere, anywhere, everywhere

Conjunctions and, because, but, or to join words, phrases, clauses
so, before, after, when, as well as, as soon as[+ see wordlist]

Sentences Simple one-clause sentences
Two clauses joined with and, but, because or or
Direct speech + noun/pronoun + say/ask
Two clauses joined with so, before, after, when
Direct speech + subject/verb inversion
Reported speech with present tense reporting verb
know, think, hope etc + that clause
Sentences with more than two main clauses
Sentences with one main and one subordinate clause
Zero and first conditional
Defining relative clauses (but not embedded)
Clauses with wh words, clauses ending in so, not
Reported speech with to + infinitive
Participle clauses
Adjectives/nouns + that clause
Complex sentences where the relations between clauses are
Non-defining relative clauses
Conditional Sentences Type II
if clauses after verbs of asking, wondering etc
Reported speech with past tense reporting verbs
Relative clauses: embedded, defining
Responses with so/neither/nor
Conditional sentences type III
Mixed conditional sentences
Inversion after hardly, no sooner etc
-ing/wh- clause as subject
Sentences with wish + were/would/had
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