Poetry

Verse rhythm (Versmaß)

foot: smallest metrical unit

trochee: two-syllable foot with falling stress ("Trochee")
iamb: two-syllable foot with rising stress, the first unstressed and the second stressed

dactyl: three syllable foot with falling stress, a metrical foot consisting of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed. It is rare to find a peom composed entirely of dactylls.
z.B. Trochee

anapaest: three-syllable foot with rising stress

monometer: line containing one foot
diameter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octameter: lines containing tow, three... feet.

caesura: phonetic pause within a line (Verseinschnitt, Zäsur)
blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter, consisting of five iambic feet
                   Trochee
alexandrine: iambic hexameter with a caesura after the third foot
free verse: verse irregulary rhythmical (like prose)
run-on lines (enjambement !!!): lines that are not end-stopped



Stanza (Strophe)

- couplet or distich: stanza of thwo lines
- heroic couplet: two iambic pentameters coupled by rhyme
- tercet, quatrain, cinquain, sestet, septet, octave...: stanzas of three, four.. lines
- sonnet - a lyric consisting of 14 rhymed iambic pentameters
- Italien sonnet (Petrarchian): an octave (abba abba) followed by a sestet (cde cde)
- Shakespearian sonnet: three quatrains followed by a heroic couplet (two iambic pentameters)


Rhyme

- masculine rhyme: monosyllabic
- feminine ryhme: double or dissyllabic rhyme
- continuous rhyme: aa bb cc (Paarreim)
- alternate rhyme: abab cdcd (Kreuzreim)
- enclosing rhyme: abba cddc (umarmender Reim)
- internal or middle rhyme: Binnenreim ("The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew")
- eye rhyme: I - utterly


Devices

- structural devices: contrast, illustration, repetition
- sense devices: simile (like, as), metaphor, personification, symbol, allegory
- sound devices: alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhyme, assonance, rhythm




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Student´s Guide to Text Production
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